Navigating on subjects
and section articles


Automatic control theory and adjacent problems

Mathematical description, structural and analytical simulation, and synthesis of objects and automatic control systems
Here are some articles and instructions to perform laboratory and practical work on the important problems of ACTh (automatic control theory)
Site materials here may be useful to both undergrad and graduate level students as well as professors teaching ACTh, as well as commercial designers of automatic control systems

These articles are oriented from a fundamental perspective and are explained in simple, accessible language whenever possible.

Instructions for labs are focused on acquisition and fixing of initial skills of investigation and how to construct models of objects and control systems. Therefore they are stated in detail with consideration of theory and detailed explanations on construction of virtual laboratory benches and investigation of system models and control systems. Instructions are given for construction of serviceable models of various control systems that facilitate mastering of simulation skills.

Modern presentation of the theory of automatic control is often based on a mathematical apparatus of state spaces, state-variables and transfer functions. This method is powerful and effective. It allows you to understand and synthesise the composite models of multivariable systems of automatic control.

However this mathematical apparatus is very abstract and requires a high mathematical background and engineering erudition from the student of which not all students can brag.

As a result, the majority of ordinary students are not able to master an ACTh (an automatic control theory) course, and therefore do not apply it in their professional work. The strong students, having mastered a mathematically intense abstract controls course can work in the field of complex automatic control systems. However a considerable proportion of industrial automatic control systems is simple enough that the ordinary engineer can develop, set up and operate them.

Thus mathematical state-variable approaches, being abstract, are difficult for students at the initial stage, so they turn to "transcendental objects" when the description and analysis generality becomes as an end in itself.

Simplification of automatic control for beginning students can be done for ACTh by using VisSim and Mathcad software for supporting labs showing object-oriented and analytical simulation of automatic controls systems. Such a course is very appealing to most students, even those of average abilities and low training level.


Rudny Industrial Institute,
Rudny, Kazakhstan
About author


Welcome to the English version!
Contents of this site will be updated during the process of translation of articles to English
The author will accept with gratitude suggestions for improvement of the English text.
Russian version >> Try to use Google translator

On page of readers responses>>

Having mastered a course in an offered volume, having fathomed and having experienced sense of the basic concepts of an ACTh (automatic control theory), having gained skills of work in VisSim and Mathcad, the student with small costs can get down to mastering powerful, effective, but abstract mathematical descriptions of automatic control systems by state-variables.

1. Automatic control. Theory problems


Automatic control theory is science, which is engaged in research of systems both objects of automatic control and construction of mathematical and structural models of efficient, optimum automatic control systems.

Examples of objects of control

Examples of objects of control. The Soviet shuttle "Buran" on the plane АН-225 "Mria" ("Dream"), washing machine Indesit, ball mill. Control all of these machines in this or that measure automatically. So, Buran, coming back from space, has carried out landing completely in an automatic mode, without participation of the man

2. Simulation and simulation programs

Modern consideration, presentation and mastering of the theory of automatic control is proposed necessity usage of programs of structural and analytical simulation. From the point of view of the author the best in this sense programs of initial mastering of the theory and practice and application in professional work are programs VisSim and Mathcad, used in a tandem. These programs exceed sheaf Matlab + Simulink on ease of mastering by students and effectivenesses of automatic control theory problem solving.

        #### 2.1. VisSim


VisSim allows to create virtual models of laboratory benches for investigation and optimisation of automatic control systems properties and structure. The powerful numerical methods applied by the program, allow to gain effectively numerical evaluations of parametres, characteristic, behaviour and properties of objects and automatic control systems.

VisSim builted models are capable, at application of special plates of the mating set in the computer, to control real objects.

Technique of application of program VisSim has the specificity which mastering is offered in methodical materials on execution of the laboratory works which are available on the present site.

Attentions deserve two versions VisSim. It is last eighth version VisSim 8 and version VisSim 3.0 (FAP 3.0), free of charge offered by the corporation for noncommercial usage in the educational purposes to professors, under their inquiry, for usage in educational process and to their students in a campus. Methodical support of laboratory works, including the virtual laboratory benches, offered on the present site, is executed in third version VisSim FAP 3.0.


        #### 2.2. Mathcad


The basis of mathematical description of systems and automatic control objects is made by the analytical methods presenting controls systems by formulas, differential equations, etc. Mathcad represents the modern instrument of analytical simulation of controls systems, capable not only a carry of computition and graf plotting under offered formulas, but also to spend transformation and the analysis of formulas, saving the researcher from labour-consuming routine work.

Mathcad works much more slowly, than VisSim, however it is incomparable faster, than it is done by the person at conversion of formulas and realisation of calculations.

Naturally, work in a Mathcad requires knowledge and usage of some specificity, however this work is as much as possible approached to traditional mathematical language which people use any more one century.

3. Methodical support of ACTh (automatic control theory)


Development of object-oriented simulation (OOS) programs allows to change essentially construction and presentation of theoretical and engineering disciplines. Programs ООS allow to carry accent from consideration of numerous technical delicacies of computational methods on profound learning of properties and characteristic of studied and investigated processes, apparatus and objects. Finally it will allow to increase efficiency of educational process and works on projection of objects and systems.

Methodical support of a course of the ACTh, located more low, is advanced, it is oriented on mean and rather feeble students and consequently is concentrated on detailed presentation only the basic problems. To the strong students it will help to gain complete representation about an ACTh (automatic control theory) course.

4. Physical properties of systems and objects and their identification


         Competence and understanding of physical properties of systems and objects allows to design, create and exploit them with fathoming of matter

4.1. Physical properties of systems and objects
4.2. Identification of objects and systems


For students and young teachers

It is considered as a good form of behaviour to refer to an information source at its quotation in the works (reports, articles, course and degree projects, etc.). Usage of materials without a reference to the source and its author is observed in scientific circles as plagiarism - larceny of another's ideas and transactionses. So it is possible to spoil reputation. Lack of links to the conventional transactionses which authors (Newton, Einstein) are widely known is admitted. The reader should find out definitely from your work what outcomes are gained by you, and what and whose you used.